Apart from CO2, how many greenhouse gases are there? What countries produce the most emissions? Where does GHG come from?

This article will answer all these questions. We will go through knowledge related to greenhouse gases, the leading cause of climate change, in each picture. Consequently, people will have a broader insight into greenhouse gases to take action together on reducing the impacts of climate change on people and the environment.

Greenhouse gases and current figures.

CO2: The use and extraction of fossil fuels is the primary source of CO2 emissions. Besides this, CO2 is also generated from other activities such as deforestation and agricultural land conversion.

CH4: Agriculture, landfill management, energy use, and biomass burning all emit a significant amount of CH4.

N2O: Agricultural activities, such as fertilizer consumption, are the main source of N2O emissions. The process of burning fossil fuels also generates large amounts of N2O.

CFC: Generated mostly from industrial processes and refrigeration.

Sectors generate greenhouse gases

Energy use

Energy consumption accounts for 73.2% of greenhouse gas emissions. It includes industrial energy consumption activities such as iron and steel production, chemical and petrochemical production, and food production, at 4.2%. Transportation emits up to 16.2% of greenhouse gases today, and this mainly comes from road traffic. Global use of electricity in buildings and households also causes the emission of 17.5% of greenhouse gases.

Agriculture and Land-use

Agriculture and forestry cause 18.4% of greenhouse gas emissions. In general, the food system, including refrigeration, food processing, packaging, and transportation, accounts for about a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions.

Direct industrial processes:

Cement, chemicals, and petrochemical manufacturing will generate CO2 as a byproduct in the production process.


Landfills around the world generate 3% of greenhouse gases. This comes from sewage in the garbage; when organic materials decompose, they produce methane and nitrogen oxides. Landfills are often oxygen-deficient. In these environments, organic waste easily converts to CH4.

Top countries of producing greenhouse gases


China is the largest carbon dioxide emitter in the world, with 10.06 billion metric tons in 2018. The main source of greenhouse gas emissions in China comes from fossil fuel consumption activities. It has been recorded that about 58% of the total energy produced in China is from burning fossil fuels.

Also, China is one of the largest importers of oil, which contributes to large CO2 emissions through the country’s use of motor vehicles. China plans to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels by using renewable energy sources.

The U.S

The U.S. is the second-largest emitter of CO2, with approximately 5.41 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions in 2018. The largest sources of CO2 emissions in the U.S. are power generation, transportation, and industry.


India is the third-largest emitter of CO2 in the world; it produced about 2.65 billion metric tons of CO2 in 2018. As the Indian economy set out on a path toward urbanization and industrialization, the consumption of solid fuels, such as coal, skyrocketed.

Coal as a source of electricity in India has risen from 68% in 1992 to 75% in 2015. Coal mines are abundant in India, and coal is generally cheaper in the country than imported oil and gas. Given these trends, the Indian economy is likely to increase its reliance on coal as a main source of energy for electricity generation and powering its heavy industry.

The Russian Federation

Russia is the fourth largest contributor to CO2 emissions in the world, with 1.71 billion metric tons in 2018. Russia has one of the largest natural gas deposits in the world, and natural gas is the primary source of energy and power generation in the country. Coal, which is widely used in chemical and other basic material industries and for power generation in Russia, is also a major contributor to Russia’s CO2 emissions.





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